Indus Valley Civilization, also known as Harappan Civilisation, was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world’s earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous. IIT-Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) have presented a proof before the whole world that the Indus Valley Civilization is at least 8,000 years old; not 5,500 years old as it used to be considered. So now Indus Valley Civilization has become much older than the Egyptian (7000BC to 3000BC) and Mesopotamian (6500BC to 3100BC) civilizations that is a shocking news for Roman minded people of Western World who always try to show Indus Valley Civilization as a small brother of Egyptian or Mesopotamian civilization . Moreover, the researchers have also found evidence of a pre-Harappan civilization that existed for at least 1,000 years before this.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was considered as a Bronze Age civilization spread mainly in northwest South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The team has recovered the oldest pottery from the civilization. They used a technique called ‘optically stimulated luminescence‘ to date pottery shards of the Early Mature Harappan time to nearly 6,000 years ago and the cultural levels of pre-Harappan Hakra phase as far back as 8,000 years. In physics, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a method for measuring doses from ionizing radiation.
The team has presented evidence that the civilization mushroomed to other Indian sites like Bhirrana and Rakhigarrhi in Haryana, excluding the known locations of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan and Lothal, Dholavira and Kalibangan in India. They explored an unexplored site, Bhirrana — and finished up revealing something much bigger. The excavation also gave huge quantities of animal remains like bones, teeth, horn cores of cow, goat, deer and antelope, which were inserted through Carbon 14 to analyse relic and the climatic surroundings in which the civilization developed.
The researchers reckon that the Indus Valley Civilization spread over a vast area of India — spread to the banks of the now “lost” Saraswati river or the Ghaggar-Hakra river – but this has not been researched enough because what we know so far is based on British excavations. At the mining sites, the researchers saw preservation of all cultural levels right from the pre-Indus Valley Civilization phase (9000-8000 BC) through what we have categorised as Early Harappan (8000-7000BC) to the Mature Harappan times.
While the earlier phases were served by bucolic and early village agricultural communities, the mature Harappan settlements were highly urbanised with organised cities, and a much developed material and craft culture. They also had a commercial relation with Arabia and Mesopotamia. The Late Harappan phase witnessed large-scale de-urbanisation, drop in population, abandonment of established settlements, lack of basic amenities, violence and even the disappearance of the Harappan script, the researchers say.
There are three stable isotopes of oxygen (16O, 17O, and 18O). Researchers analysed the oxygen isotope composition in the bone and tooth phosphates of these remains to unravel the climate pattern. The oxygen isotope in mammal bones and teeth preserve the signature of ancient meteoric water and in turn the intensity of monsoon rainfall. The new study shows that the pre-Harappan humans started inhabiting this area along the Ghaggar-Hakra rivers in a climate that was in favor of human settlement and agriculture.
Tags: News of Indus Valley Civilisation, Harappan Civilization, How old it is?